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- Ancient Egypt: A Very Short Introduction (Very Short Introductions) - PDF Free Download
- 1.2 – Old Kingdom
- Ancient Egyptian Art and Architecture: A Very Short Introduction (Very Short Introductions)
Clustered around the royal tombs or dug into the surrounding cliffs were smaller, flat-roofed tombs called mastabas that held the bodies of nobles. Though sometimes built of mud brick, the mastabas were more often of limestone.
The sides of the buildings sloped inward. Within the long building only a small area was made into chapels for offerings and chambers to hold statues of the dead. Far below the surface a burial chamber was hollowed in the rock. After burial the shaft was filled with large stone blocks. Parts of temples have been found, but only the temple dedicated to the sun at Abu-Gurab near Giza remains. It, too, was approached by a long passageway and surrounded by a high wall. Unlike all other Egyptian temples, much of this temple was open to the sun.
The most important part of the building was its great center court containing an altar and an obelisk, sacred symbol of the sun. An obelisk is a four-sided pillar tapering to a miniature pyramid at the top. Usually an Egyptian obelisk was cut from one piece of stone, often covered with writings of the kings' triumphs. Sculpture and Painting One of the earliest and most typical of royal Egyptian sculptures is a statute of the great Zoser found in his pyramid at Saqqara. This life-size statue shows the sitting pharaoh staring straight ahead.
For a long time, only such calm poses were popular in Egyptian sculpture.
Many royal sculptures of hard stone were intended for the inside of a tomb of a king. But we can still see the remains of some public monuments. The outstanding example of these larger works is the Great Sphinx at Giza.
Egyptian art and architecture
A huge sculpture with a lion's body and a human head, the Sphinx was carved from the natural rock of the site. It is as high as a modern seven-story building. Smaller, brightly painted limestone sculptures were also made for the tomb. They usually showed the owner as a youthful man. Minor members of the royal family and many nobles had statues made of red granite and other hard stones, but these were expensive.
Ancient Egypt: A Very Short Introduction (Very Short Introductions) - PDF Free Download
At all times throughout the Old Kingdom wood was used for statues. It, too, was brightly painted. The eyes were often inlaid, giving the statue a lifelike appearance. Most officials had several statues made for their tombs. Wall carving, or relief sculpture—sculpture carved to stand out from a background—decorated the walls of the pyramid temples and tombs. Scenes from daily life—sports, crafts, hunts—were carved in rows. Much less painting than architecture and sculpture remains from this period.
The interior walls of the tombs of noblemen were lined with plaster and then painted. In many ways wall carvings were similar to paintings. In both, figures were placed on the walls in rows, one on top of the other. The carefully drawn outline was filled in with even, unshaded colors. In this way the painted wall carvings looked very flat, as though the figures were cutouts pasted to the wall. About the central Egyptian government seems to have fallen apart. Egypt once more became a series of separate states in great confusion. During this time little building or sculpture was done.
Eventually, about , a central government was again organized under a strong king. His tomb included a courtyard, terrace, temple, and the king's burial chamber at the end of a long passage that had been cut into the solid rock of the cliffs. The tomb had a highly original design that was copied centuries later for Queen Hatshepsut's famous temple.
Though now badly damaged, Mentuhotep II's tomb is of great interest because it is the oldest remaining temple at Thebes, the chief city of the south. With the rise of King Amenemhet I about , Egypt entered one of its great periods. Amenemhet returned to the tradition of using the pyramid as the royal tomb. His pyramid was constructed at El Lisht, not far south of Memphis. In general form his pyramid and those of his successors followed the Old Kingdom style—valley temple, passageway, upper temple, and finally the pyramid itself.
But the newer pyramids were smaller and poorly constructed. Instead of the great stone blocks used earlier, these Middle Kingdom pyramids were often built of mud brick covered with limestone. The limestone was always stolen, and the brick pyramids crumbled into huge mounds. And, despite efforts to protect them, the royal burial chambers in these pyramids were all robbed.
1.2 – Old Kingdom
In this period the best tombs built by wealthy nobles were cut into great rock cliffs. The tombs have columned entryways and halls. The inside walls are covered with paintings and relief sculptures.
The sculpture of the Middle Kingdom was one of the greatest achievements of Egyptian art. For the first time in Egyptian history, kings were realistically represented as mortal men. These kings show the wear and tear of life; their faces are handsome but deeply lined, and they look sad and weary. Since they were thought of as god-kings, this realism was unusual.
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But only the faces were realistic; the bodies of these statues looked youthful, slender, and strong. Huge statues of kings were produced at this time in granite and other hard stones. Some statues were so oversized that they could not fit inside the temples but had to be placed in the open air. Smaller royal statues were sometimes made in wood. Some wood sculpture was done larger than life-size. Wooden models of boats and houses and even scenes of daily life were made to be placed in tombs for use in the afterlife.
Statuettes of human and animal figures were made of ivory and semiprecious stones. The sculpture ordered by the nobility was similar to royal work. Harder stones were used more than limestone. Figures were shown in several new positions. Perhaps the most important was the cube, or block, statue.go
Ancient Egyptian Art and Architecture: A Very Short Introduction (Very Short Introductions)
A man never a woman was shown seated on the ground with his knees drawn up against his chest. His entire body was wrapped in a great cloak. The sculpture gives the impression of a head coming out of a great cube. The Middle Kingdom came to an end with a series of foreign invasions. Soon after the beginning of the 16th century the last of the invaders were driven from Egypt. The new Egyptian kings were warriors, and they began conquering nearby states. Their conquests made Egypt the richest and most civilized power of the time, the ruler of a great empire.
If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to retrieve your username. Skip to Main Content. First published: 17 November About this book A Companion to Ancient Egyptian Art presents a comprehensive collection of original essays exploring key concepts, critical discourses, and theories that shape the discipline of ancient Egyptian art. Free Access. Summary PDF Request permissions. Tools Get online access For authors. Livro Novo. Apenas oferecemos Entrega Normal.
Empresa certificada desde The stories behind these objects and buildings have much to tell us about how people in ancient Egypt lived their lives in relation to each other, the natural environment, and the world of the gods. Demonstrating how ancient Egypt has fascinated Western audiences over the centuries with its impressive pyramids, eerie mummies, and distinctive visual style, Riggs considers the relationship between ancient Egypt and the modern world.
These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable. Venda o seu Ancient egyptian art and architectu com apenas alguns cliques, em fnac.